Coastal bio-shields are expected to protect human settlements against coastal disasters such as cyclones, tsunamis, and high-speed winds. Since the early 20th century, Casuarina plantations have been raised extensively along the vast Indian coastlines as shelterbelts, despite concerns that they are detrimental to local biodiversity and native ecosystems that provides a habitat to native species. But, during the
October 1999 super cyclone along the Odisha coast, Casuarina plantations failed to protect human lives, whereas native vegetation like mangroves and mixed cashew plantations did.
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Institute of Economic Growth, University Enclave, University of Delhi (North Campus),
Delhi 110 007, India